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  • BRAIN: Software Application for Disabled StudentsBRAIN: Software Application for Disabled Students
    Modern universities rely increasingly on communication technologies for the educational processes and the management of academic databases. In the paper “Software Application for Disabled Students” the researchers Laszlo Csiki, Andrei Gabor, Marius Popescu, and Antoanela …
  • BRAIN: The Interplay among EFL Teachers´ Teaching Experience, Critical Thinking, and Classroom ManagementBRAIN: The Interplay among EFL Teachers´ Teaching Experience, Critical Thinking, and Classroom Management
    What makes a great teacher? The list is perhaps endless, but many would agree that classroom management is a crucial skill that any teacher needs. Classroom management is a term used to describe the processes …
  • LIBRI: The Values of Antiquity in Contemporary Literature and ArtsLIBRI: The Values of Antiquity in Contemporary Literature and Arts
    In the entitled article The Values of Antiquity in Contemporary Literature and Arts, Ph.D. and lecturer, Paula Onofrei is aiming to find the common grounds between the art of the Antiquity and the art of …
  • BRAIN: Browsing Semantic Data in SlovakiaBRAIN: Browsing Semantic Data in Slovakia
    Ján Mojžiš and Michal Laclavík present an interesting topic in the academic article Browsing Semantic Data in Slovakia in the latest volume of BRAIN journal. Semantic data browsing is an important task for open and governmental data in …
  • BRAIN: Classification of Human EmotionBRAIN: Classification of Human Emotion
    An innovative research in BRAIN journal, Classification of Human Emotion from Deap EEG Signal Using Hybrid Improved Neural Networks with Cuckoo Search, academic article provided by M. Sreeshakthy and J. Preethi, both professors at Anna …
  • BRAIN: Automatic Anthropometric System Development Using Machine Learning
    In the latest volume of the BRAIN journal, Long The Nguyen and Huong Thu Nguyen from Irkutsk National Technical University in Lermontov, Russia have developed a research paper on the Automatic Anthropometric System Development using …
  • BRAIN: Efficient Filtering of Noisy Fingerprint ImagesBRAIN: Efficient Filtering of Noisy Fingerprint Images
    Fingerprint identification is an imperative field in the wide space of biometrics with numerous applications, in various zones such as: judicial, cell telephones, access systems, airports. There are many elaborated algorithms for fingerprint identification, but none …
  • BRAND: Symbolic Relationships in AdvertisementsBRAND: Symbolic Relationships in Advertisements
    When talking about advertisements, one would certainly link them to the word “symbol”, as the advertisements prepare for the products that they recommend a rich symbolic life. Since the products are different, the symbolic life should also …
  • BRAND: Dynamics of the number of participants in the private pension
    Tudor Colomeischi and Eugenia Iancu have done a stimulating research on the Dynamics of the number of participants in the second pillar of mandatory private pension of Romania during May 2008 – November 2014. The …
  • BRAND: Mediation – The Wise Advocacy
    Antagonistic prosecution is not by any means the only method for determining debate and settling of cases. There are different alternatives. Elective method for debate determination can spare cash and time, and can grapple and …
  • BRAIN: Business Process Management – An Interesting ApproachBRAIN: Business Process Management – An Interesting Approach
    In the latest volume of the BRAIN journal, Roberto Paiano, Adriana Caione, Anna Lisa Guido, Angelo Martella and Andrea Pandurino have come up with an interesting research on the Business Process Development, a traditional approach vs. …
  • BRAIN: Is There a Relationship between Consciousness and Epilepsy?BRAIN: Is There a Relationship between Consciousness and Epilepsy?
    A serious health condition that affects 1% of the global population is epilepsy. This is a neurological disorder usually detected by EEG (electroencephalography) signals, and it has as common symptom spontaneous recurrent seizures characterized by …

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Emotion Extractions from Facial Expressions by Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

We all know what emotions are and how they can influence someone’s decisions. In many fields, emotions play a big role and almost every time they can be seen on someone’s face. It is difficult to read the emotions on somebody’s face when you actually concentrate more on what the person is saying. Not everyone can be a multi-tasking master and pay attention to the body language as well (which by the way, sometimes shows the true feelings of a person). In marketing for example, we can see very clearly the attitude that a customer has over a product just by looking at his face. Let us all agree, life would be way easier if we would be always aware of what a person is truly feeling.

Taking in account all that, researchers Hakan Boz and Utku Kose conducted a study and wrote an article called ’’Emotion Extractions from Facial Expressions by Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques’’. Nowadays, in an era where technology becomes more and more dominant in each and every field, these researchers developed a system that is actually able to identify the emotion of a person based on his facial expression. In detail, the system considered a Cascade Feedforward Artificial Neural Network model trained by a recent optimization algorithm called as Vortex Optimization Algorithm.

The main objective is generally finding the points determining different parts of a face. After determining the related parts of a face, it becomes easier to have idea about i.e. facial expression. On the other hand, it is also important that different genders, different races and even changing sizes of a head – face can affect the way of detecting facial expression. So, it has always been important, especially for researchers working on detecting facial expressions by intelligent systems, to use appropriate types of data. The researchers Boz and Kose applied 3 sets of data, the first set containing 490 photos with genders, and adjusted for 7 emotions, the second set including 810 photos with genders, races, and adjusted for 7 emotions and the third set (the authors’ choices) 100 photos chosen randomly and adjusted for 7 emotions.

 Different data sets for the application of emotion extraction from facial expressions
Different data sets for the application of emotion extraction from facial expressions

In order to train the system, the researchers used Microsoft Kinect 3D infrastructure to gather 3D face points. Microsoft Kinect 3D is a popular system of both hardware and software solutions for effective recognition processes from photos or videos. The results had been positive and the system was able to extract the emotions from different photographs. They used the Vortex Optimization Algorithm. This is an intelligent, Swarm Intelligence based algorithm, which was developed by Kose and Arslan by inspiring from dynamics of vortices in the nature. In detail, the algorithm uses some role-based and evolutionary mechanisms to achieve the optimization solution processes.

In conclusion, the researchers succeeded in developing a system that is effective enough to extract different emotions from photos related to individuals with different gender and even different race. We are all sure that this is the future of technology and soon enough, emotion reading won’t be a secret for the humankind anymore.

Ecaterina Filimon

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    Technology has become more than a phenomenon used for innovation, it is now a science put in the service of making human life easier. If in the past, taking a picture of yourself required a voluminous camera with an obscure chamber, nowadays we have our cameras to ourselves for they are incorporated in our gadgets. Therefore, we take pictures of everything we see – recording reality is just one swipe away and ready in the blink of an eye. However, sometimes is difficult to skim through thousands of photos in order to find a specific one. Nabil M. Hewahi and…
    Tags: networks, neural, photos, based, recognition, artificial, intelligence
  • 39
    The article written by Ahmet Demir from Harahalli Vocational School, Usak University, Ușak, Turkey and Utku Kose from Computer Sciences Application and Research Center, Usak University, Ușak, Turkey is a research which takes into account the importance of optimization and of solving its problems. They propose intelligent optimization techniques based on Artificial Intelligence in order to use them for optimization problems. So that they can provide a comparative study on the employment of classical optimization solutions and Artificial Intelligence solutions, two optimization algorithms are proposed: Vortex Optimization Algorithm (VOA) and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA). Optimization is defined as choosing…
    Tags: optimization, algorithm, vortex, artificial, intelligence
  • 32
      We are all familiar with the movies in which robots take control over humans and then chaos is brought into the world just because these forms of artificial intelligence became too developed. But is this actually possible or is it just an invention of the movie directors in order to attract more audience? Researcher Utku Kose tried to depict the possible scenarios in which this could happen and he also came up with some solutions in the article Are We Safe Enough in the Future of Artificial Intelligence? A Discussion on Machine Ethics and Artificial Intelligence Safety. Starting from…
    Tags: intelligence, artificial, intelligent, kose, utku
  • 31
    One of the biggest problems that we can encounter when scaling a picture that’s small to a big dimension is the fact that small scaled image are losing some important bits of information which cannot be recovered when scaled back. This problem though, can be fixed using multi-objective genetic algorithm. Researchers Kishor Datta Gupta and Sajib Sen are describing a genetic algorithm approach to recover lost bits while image resized to the smaller version using the original image data bit counts which are stored while the image is scaled. This method is very scalable to apply in a distributed system.…
    Tags: algorithm, recognition, intelligence, artificial

BRAIN: The Interplay among EFL Teachers´ Teaching Experience, Critical Thinking, and Classroom Management

What makes a great teacher? The list is perhaps endless, but many would agree that classroom management is a crucial skill that any teacher needs. Classroom management is a term used to describe the processes by which teachers and schools create and maintain appropriate behavior of students in classroom settings. It is a complex concept as it refers to more than one action. This involves the ability to make each class interesting and thus keeping the students focused, and also dealing with unexpected problems in an appropriate way. When classroom management techniques are applied effectively, the students are active, they participate in class and they are not distracted by other things. They are also encouraged to express their opinions, which enhances their moral and social development.

school_teacher

In the study The Interplay among EFL Teachers´ Teaching Experience, Critical Thinking, and Classroom Management, the author – Maryam Zakian explores the connection between the classroom management, critical thinking, and years of teaching experience of Iranian EFL teachers. The full paper will be published in Issue 2 of the journal BRAIN – Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, vol. 9, 2018.

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  • 22
    Conscience in Language Teaching and its Relationship with Language Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers by Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani was published here. Several factors contribute to the efficacy of an English language teacher, among which, language proficiency and emotional intelligence. Yet, there is a newly developed factor which claims to add value to a language teacher. This new factor is called language teaching conscience. Conscience is the sense of right and wrong, which tells us whether what we are doing is morally right or wrong based on particular norms, rules, or religions. Conscientious teachers seem to be more responsible for…
    Tags: teachers, teaching, efl

BRAIN: Ethnolinguistic Audio-visual Atlas of the Cultural Food Heritage of Bacău County – Elements of methodology

Cultural heritage consists not only of objects that we can see and touch, but also immaterial elements like social practices, knowledge, skills, and traditional food. The paper “Ethnolinguistic Audio-visual Atlas of the Cultural Food Heritage of Bacău County – Elements of methodology”, written by Petronela Savin, aims to present the methodology of the platform that contains results from field researches and scientific documentation on local cultural food traditions.The survey involves the older generation from the rural county of Bacӑu, Romania, and once transposed into electronic format it may become a resource for a larger spectrum of activities such as education, economy, and tourism.

romanian_traditional_storage

 

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  • 25
    Speech recognition applications enable the recognition and translation of spoken languages into text by computers. Due to the fact that the traditional approaches are costly and time consuming, the worldwide industry adopted speech recognition systems. Andrei Scutelnicu, Anca Diana Bibiri, Mihaela Onofrei, and Mircea Hulea will present in their paper “A speech to text transcription approach based on Romanian corpus” a simple and efficient method for speech to text recognition, based on a machine learning approach, using a Romanian speech corpus. The researchers used information from two questionnaires (AMPER-ROM[ANIA] and AMPRom) that belong to the project AMPRom (Romanian multimedia prosodic…
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  • 24
    Mobile learning, also known as m-learning, is an educational system. Mobile learning supports, with the help of mobile devices, a continuous access to the learning process. This can be on appliances like your phone, laptop or tablet. You can learn wherever and whenever you want! Mobile and ubiquitous learning has been a key focus in e-learning and practicing broadly worldwide. Among the research publications in this area, a majority of them focused on evaluating the effectiveness of relevant practices and reported positive outcomes. The paper Success in Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning: Indicators of Effectiveness written by researcher Billy T.M. Wong focuses…
    Tags: learning, practices, social, education, educational, technology, achievements
  • 21
    Sebastian Fuicu, Mircea Popa, Dalibor Dobrilovic, Marius Marcu and Razvan Bogdan offer a paper named "Developing Distance Learning Environments in the Context of Cross-Border Cooperation" which consists of a collaboration between Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania and the Technical Faculty "Mihajlo Pupin" of Zrenjanin, Serbia. This paper comes up with a low maintenance cooperation model based on a web cast system that gives both countries the opportunity to access one another's educational material, which is very helpful for pupils and students. Developing different programs and techniques to achieve the best results of distance learning has become a very important point…
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BRAIN: The Impact of Infographics in Education

Information graphics (also called infographics) are graphic visual representations of information that aim to present information quickly and clearly. Their main purpose is improving cognition by utilizing graphics to enhance the human visual system’s ability to see patterns and trends. The paper “The Impact of Infographics in Education”, written by Mobina Beheshti and Huseyin Bicen, investigates what are students’ thoughts on using infographics in the education system and whether they deliver satisfactory results in academic communication.

In academic communication infographics can be used to illustrate complex information in a compact form. It is a feature that enables teachers to prepare various learning activities that increase the collaboration, engagement and conceptual understanding of the learners.

Example of an infographic design
Example of an infographic design

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    Social Media in Academia: Research and Teaching provides relevant theoretical frameworks, and the latest research on social media and its challenges in the educational and political context. Our conference is essential for professionals aiming to improve their understanding of social media at different levels of education and in civic/social/political engagement, as well as researchers in the fields of e-learning, educational science, political science, new media, information and communication sciences, and much more. Details about SMART 2015 Keynote speakers Topics of the conference Committees Deadlines and instructions for authors Fee and registration Location of SMART 2015 Participants and Schedule This year, our…
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  • 32
    Daniela Popescul and Mircea Georgescu present a new research indexed in BRAIN Journal on a very actual topic: Generation Y Students in Social Media. The purpose of this study is to estimate what it is known about Generation Y students’ behavior in Social Media (SM), especially in our country. The correct identification of their traits is crucial for the academic community, primarily from the perspective of understanding their authentic needs, as beneficiaries of edifying act, followed by an earnest and consistent adaptation of the offer proposed. In an elongated literature review, Daniela Popescul and Mircea Georgescu endeavor to determine the reasons…
    Tags: students, academic, education, brain
  • 31
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  • 31
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BRAIN: Brain and AI

As years pass, the importance of Artificial Intelligence grows at a fast pace. The evolution of this concept is being presented to the readers in Ángel Garrido’s upcoming paper, titled Brain and AI. Starting with the historical origins of this scientific field at the Darmouth Conference in 1956, the famous Turing test, the Strong vs. Weak AI discussion, the Chinese Room argument etc., and proceeding with projects such as Blue Brain Project, the central purpose of AI has always been to create an admissible model for human knowledge.

The Blue Brain Project is being briefly described by Garrido as an initiative to build an artificial copy of the mammalian brain by using an IBM supercomputer with ten thousand processors. Just like in aeronautics, the tool will be able to understand what happens in the brain during dysfunctional situations, and may try different behaviors.

Blue Brain Project
Blue Brain Project

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  • 38
    Because of their ability to reproduce the biological neural networks, ANNs (Artificial neural networks) have found uncountable applications to a wide range of disciplines. Simina Maris, Titus Slavici, Petre Nenu and Liliana Baciu will present in the latest volume of BRAIN journal an article about the usage of artificial intelligence, especially artificial neural networks (ANNs), in the development of an efficient research plan for studying the quality of finite products, in particular wood briquettes obtained from various biomass mixtures. Their work is a response to the needs expressed by a private company (SC Andrei Slavici SRL) searching for innovation in…
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