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July 2018
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BRAIN Journal – The ICS Paradigm in Knowledge and Modelling

In this paper the authors find out that the exploration of the human thinking’s limits and subtleties create valuable results in all scientific fields, including the engineering of the software systems. This paper describes the ICS (Intuitive, Circumstantial, Speculative) modelling paradigm, which aims to make the development process of the software systems more efficient. The two perspectives on the problematic of knowledge are the following:

  • The knowledge acquired through individual excellence (KAIE);
  • The knowledge acquired through associative excellence (KAAE).

The authours differentiate between multiple types of knowledge such as:

  • The sensory-perceptual (intuitive) knowledge;
  • The circumstantial knowledge;
  • The speculative knowledge;
  • The artistic knowledge;
  • The demiurgical knowledge.

They claim that the incentive to advance the knowledge is the human being’s appetite to address the problems, which are often created by himself. The human knowledge is of course, approximate. This paper intends to find a research model regarding the methodic exploration of the human thinking limits, which intends to find new modalities to understand the complexity of the universe. In this context, it can be asserted that the concrete reality, which is understood through the intuitive and circumstantial knowledge, are coded and valued using the abstraction power of the speculative knowledge. Next the authors give a definition to sensation. Let us call sensation any data that refers to the state of a real world artefact, and this data has been fetched with an essentially sensory knowledge device (ESKD). ESKD devices are used in order to ensure the direct contact with the real world. The precision of the sensory data is inherently approximate, as the sensation is a subjective representation of the real world. The authors also give another definition: „Let us call perception a subjective representation of an artefact, which is obtained by capitalizing the sensory data acquisitions.” Perception allows the human to report to the real world artefacts in the absence of a direct contact with them. Also, the perception anticipates the affinity of the speculative knowledge for the systematic abstractization, and it also highlights the need to associate the abstractions with an adequate intuitive support.

Next the authors talk about the conceptual foundations of the circumstantial knowledge. Modelling and understanding the world helps humans develop a special relationship with the universe or with the hidden creator. The human intelligence efficiently combines the monotony that is inherent to the circumstantial knowledge with the satisfaction that accompanies the vast and profound connections, which are realized by the speculative knowledge.The circumstantial knowledge has the goal to describe the primary structure of the artefacts that are studied or modelled. Next the authors mention circumstial knowledge. „Let us call circumstantial knowledge any method that a human uses in order to understand and represent the structural invariants of a real or conceptual artefact.” The intention of the syntagm “circumstantial knowledge” is to highlight the fact that the circumstantial thinking means to relate as rigorously as possible to the circumstances that found a cognitive approach. In spite of the good intentions of a circumstantial cognitive approach, the errors, either assumed or involuntary, always exist, which naturally highlight the quality of the circumstantial knowledge products’ invariance over time. The large or small progresses in the field of knowledge have been invariably obtained by combining, in an inspired manner, the monotonous rigour of the circumstantial knowledge, with the unconventional creativity that defines the speculative knowledge.

Also, the authors talk about the conceptual foundations of the speculative knowledge. Let us call speculative knowledge any method that is used to discover new meanings in a certain circumstantial context. In other words, the speculative knowledge can help us to discover the usefulness of a circumstantial cognitive approach. Furthermore, the speculative knowledge is responsible for defining a correct formal framework for the elaboration of a circumstantial cognitive approach.

 The authors found five maturity levels of a cognitive approach’s subject, which may be synthetically characterized as follows, cosidering the objects that the subject of the cognitive approach relates to:

  • Level 1: Implies real world objects, as they are perceived by their users;
  • Level 2: Implies the external representation model of the real world objects. This representation is thought to be accessible and useful to the experts in the problem’s domain;
  • Level 3: Implies the internal representation model of the real world atomic objects. This representation has the role to facilitate and optimize the processing that is specific to the implied objects. These models represent the entrance door of the objects represented in external format into the operating logic of a problem’s solution. Consequently, the internal representation model of the real world atomic objects is part of the specific formalism that operates in the domain of the solution;
  • Level 4: It corresponds to the durable representation models of the artefacts, which are featured by a significant structural potential;
  • Level 5: It involves the elaboration of investigative methods, which aim to find the optimal modelling variant of the artefacts.

In conclusion, this study conducted by Dorin and Răzvan Bocu provides a good description of how one can start modelling the knowledge. ”Understanding and especially simulating some of the cognitive skills of man are challenges, which force the rethinking of the links with the world of intelligent systems, with the intelligence itself.”

Ecaterina Filimon