May 2018
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A Review on “Could Neuroenhancement be an Ethical Approach in Social Practice?”

Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field of research aimed at understanding the consciousness and the mind through the relationship between it and the brain’s physical support. Among other things, the ethical perspective refers to the acceptability of the practices used to modify human behavior through interventions on the nervous system. In this paper, the researchers Antonio Sandu and Elena Unguru are presenting a theoretical perspective on the possible implications of neuroethics in the practice of social services.



About Machine Ethics and Artificial Intelligence Safety


We are all familiar with the movies in which robots take control over humans and then chaos is brought into the world just because these forms of artificial intelligence became too developed. But is this actually possible or is it just an invention of the movie directors in order to attract more audience? Researcher Utku Kose tried to depict the possible scenarios in which this could happen and he also came up with some solutions in the article Are We Safe Enough in the Future of Artificial Intelligence? A Discussion on Machine Ethics and Artificial Intelligence Safety. Starting from the point that currently there are many anxious people about the possible existence of dangerous intelligent systems, Utku talked about many hypotheses and tried to find some answers to questions that probably we all have asked at a point in our life.



Emotion Extractions from Facial Expressions by Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

We all know what emotions are and how they can influence someone’s decisions. In many fields, emotions play a big role and almost every time they can be seen on someone’s face. It is difficult to read the emotions on somebody’s face when you actually concentrate more on what the person is saying. Not everyone can be a multi-tasking master and pay attention to the body language as well (which by the way, sometimes shows the true feelings of a person). In marketing for example, we can see very clearly the attitude that a customer has over a product just by looking at his face. Let us all agree, life would be way easier if we would be always aware of what a person is truly feeling.

Taking in account all that, researchers Hakan Boz and Utku Kose conducted a study and wrote an article called ’’Emotion Extractions from Facial Expressions by Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques’’. Nowadays, in an era where technology becomes more and more dominant in each and every field, these researchers developed a system that is actually able to identify the emotion of a person based on his facial expression. In detail, the system considered a Cascade Feedforward Artificial Neural Network model trained by a recent optimization algorithm called as Vortex Optimization Algorithm.

The main objective is generally finding the points determining different parts of a face. After determining the related parts of a face, it becomes easier to have idea about i.e. facial expression. On the other hand, it is also important that different genders, different races and even changing sizes of a head – face can affect the way of detecting facial expression. So, it has always been important, especially for researchers working on detecting facial expressions by intelligent systems, to use appropriate types of data. The researchers Boz and Kose applied 3 sets of data, the first set containing 490 photos with genders, and adjusted for 7 emotions, the second set including 810 photos with genders, races, and adjusted for 7 emotions and the third set (the authors’ choices) 100 photos chosen randomly and adjusted for 7 emotions.

 Different data sets for the application of emotion extraction from facial expressions
Different data sets for the application of emotion extraction from facial expressions

In order to train the system, the researchers used Microsoft Kinect 3D infrastructure to gather 3D face points. Microsoft Kinect 3D is a popular system of both hardware and software solutions for effective recognition processes from photos or videos. The results had been positive and the system was able to extract the emotions from different photographs. They used the Vortex Optimization Algorithm. This is an intelligent, Swarm Intelligence based algorithm, which was developed by Kose and Arslan by inspiring from dynamics of vortices in the nature. In detail, the algorithm uses some role-based and evolutionary mechanisms to achieve the optimization solution processes.

In conclusion, the researchers succeeded in developing a system that is effective enough to extract different emotions from photos related to individuals with different gender and even different race. We are all sure that this is the future of technology and soon enough, emotion reading won’t be a secret for the humankind anymore.

Ecaterina Filimon

BRAIN: The Interplay among EFL Teachers´ Teaching Experience, Critical Thinking, and Classroom Management

What makes a great teacher? The list is perhaps endless, but many would agree that classroom management is a crucial skill that any teacher needs. Classroom management is a term used to describe the processes by which teachers and schools create and maintain appropriate behavior of students in classroom settings. It is a complex concept as it refers to more than one action. This involves the ability to make each class interesting and thus keeping the students focused, and also dealing with unexpected problems in an appropriate way. When classroom management techniques are applied effectively, the students are active, they participate in class and they are not distracted by other things. They are also encouraged to express their opinions, which enhances their moral and social development.


In the study The Interplay among EFL Teachers´ Teaching Experience, Critical Thinking, and Classroom Management, the author – Maryam Zakian explores the connection between the classroom management, critical thinking, and years of teaching experience of Iranian EFL teachers. The full paper will be published in Issue 2 of the journal BRAIN – Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, vol. 9, 2018.


BRAIN: Ethnolinguistic Audio-visual Atlas of the Cultural Food Heritage of Bacău County – Elements of methodology

Cultural heritage consists not only of objects that we can see and touch, but also immaterial elements like social practices, knowledge, skills, and traditional food. The paper “Ethnolinguistic Audio-visual Atlas of the Cultural Food Heritage of Bacău County – Elements of methodology”, written by Petronela Savin, aims to present the methodology of the platform that contains results from field researches and scientific documentation on local cultural food traditions.The survey involves the older generation from the rural county of Bacӑu, Romania, and once transposed into electronic format it may become a resource for a larger spectrum of activities such as education, economy, and tourism.